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sixth grade science

term definition
Mass amount of matter that makes up an object.
Volume amount of space that something takes up.
Weight measure of the pull of gravity on an object.
Density measure of the amount of matter in a given space – mass per unit volume is this.
Physical properties properties of matter that can be seen or measured without changing the substance into somehting else.
Chemical properties properties of matter that forms new substances when it reacts with something else.
condensation change of state from gas to a liquid.
Physical change appearance of a substance changes but its properties stay the same.
Chemical change one or more substances change into completely new substances with different properties.
Liquid Definite Volume but no definite shape
Gas No particular shape or volume
Plasma state of matter that does not have definite shape or volume.
Solid has definite shape and volume

Terms – Minerals

Term Meaning
proton positively charged subatomic particles contained in the nucleus of an atom
neutron electronically neutral subatomic particles contained in the nucleus of an atom
electron negatively charged particles that orbit the nucleus in shells or energy levels
mineral naturally occuring, solid, inorganic, has a definite chemical composition, has an orderly internal arrangement of atoms
streak color of a mineral's powder
hardness a mineral's resistance to being scratched
luster the way light is reflected from the mineral's surface
cleavage when a mineral breaks with flat sides along planes of weakness
fracture when a mineral breaks irregularly
specific gravity how heavy a mineral is; density compared to water
element a substance that cannot be broken down into smaller substances by ordinary chemical means
native element an element that exists alone in nature (EX: gold – Au)
compound substance consisting of two or more elements chemically combined
atom the smallest part of an element that has all the characteristics of that element

division, entrance, exit and course of nerves

Division Nerve Enters Course Exits
Ophthalamic Frontal Superior Orbital Fissure, superior to centeral ring tendon Divides into Supraorbital and Supratrochlear Branches Supraorbital & Supratrochlear Foramina to supply skin ovr orbit and forehead
Ophthalamic Lacrimal Superior Orbital Fissure superior to centeral ring tendon courses laterally in orbit, provides sensory innervation to lacrimal gland. Postganglionic parasymp. fibers to lacrimal gland via lacricmal nerver n/a
Ophthalamic Nasocilliary Superior Orbital Fissure within central ring tendon Course lateral to medial by crossing superior to optic nerve. Connects to ciliary ganlion via sensory root. Gives off long ciliary nerves to eye, ethmoidal branches to ethmoidal sinuses all sensory n/a
Maxillary Maxillary Pterygopalatine fossa vai Foramen Rotundum. Within fossa it is attached to the Pterygopalatine ganglion and via branches from the ganglion it provides sensory innervation to the nasal cavity and oral cavities. Divides into Zygomatic an Infraorbital Nerves n/a
Maxillary Infraorbital Nerve Exits pterygopalatine fossa via Inferior Orbital Fissure to enter floor of the orbit Within the orbital floot, it enters the Infraorbital Canal Exits skull via Inraorbital Foramen to supply the face between the mouth and the orbit
Maxillary Zygomatic Nerve Exits pterygopalatine fossa via inferior Orbital Fissure to enter floor of the orbit Courses in the lateral wall of the orbit sending a branch (postganglionic parasymp.) to lacrimal nerve exits the orbit as the zygomaticofacial and temporal nerves
Mandibular Mandibular Enters infratemporal fossa via Foramen Ovale Innervates muscles of mastication and gives off 4 sensory branches. Nerve to Mylohyoid branch is motor to Mylohyoid and Anterior Belly of the Digastri Muscle n/s
Mandibular Buccal Nerve Pierces the buccinator muscle to supply sensory innervation to the mucosa of the check n/a n/a
Mandibular Auriculotemporal Splits around middle meningeal artery continues latterally to the parotid gland and skin anterior to the ear. Postganglionic parasymp. fibers from the otic ganglion hitchhike on it to the parotid gland n/a
Mandibular Inferior Alveolar Nerve Enters Mandibular Foramen Supplies the manibular teeth Exits mandible via Mental Foramen to supply skin on the chin
Mandibular Lingual Nerve (blank) Courses anterior into the floor of the mouth where it's sensory to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. Preganlionic Parasymp. & Taste fibers from the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (VII branch) join it in the infratemporal fossa. The submandibular ganglion is attach (blank)

Cranial Nerves 7 to 12

Cranial Nerve Type Innervates Fxns Origin Exits Skull tests for lesion
7- Facial Nerve mixed and parasympathetic facial muscles, middle ear, oral cavity, platysma, stylohyoid, posterior belly digastric motor- facial expressions, inner ear. sensory- taste (ant 2/3 tongue). parasym- salivates (submandibular & sublingual glands), mucus secreting, tears (lacrimal gland) pons internal auditory meatus, stylomastoid foramen, petrotympanic fissure/ PCF cannot taste/ cannot cry
8- Vestibulocochlear sensory inner ear hearing, linear acceleration (gravity), angular acceleration (head turning) pons Internal Auditory Meatus/ PCF cannot hear
9- Glossopharyngeal mixed and parasympathetic pharynx, neck, tongue motor- 1 muscle for swallowing. sensory- taste and somatic sensation for post. 1/3 tongue, pharynx, tonsils, sensory to carotid body and sinus. parasymp- salivate (parotid gland) medulla jugular foramen/ PCF gag reflex
10- Vagus mixed and parasympathetic neck, pharynx, larynx, GI tract, palate motor- palate, pharynx, larynx. sensory- larynx and GI. parasymp- smooth muscle of GI and gut medulla jugular foramen/ PCF cannot swallow/ cannot speak
11- Accessory motor trapezius, sternocleidomastoid scapular movement, neck flexion and rotation medulla jugular foramen/ PCF cannot elevate/ retract scapula
12- Hypoglossal motor all intrinsic and 3 of 4 extrinsic tongue muscles tongue movement medulla hypoglassal canal/ PCF cannot protrude tongue

science terms

Term Description
ellipse An elongated circle, or oval shape; the shape of the planets’ orbits.
geocentric a description of the solar systemin which all of the plants revolve around the earth
inertia the tendency of a moving object to continue in a strait line or a stationary object o remain in place
heliocentric a description in which the solar system in which all of the plants revolve around the sun
core the centrel part of the sun, where nuclear fusion occours
nuclear fusion the process by which hydrogen atoms join together to form helium , releasing energy
corona the outer layer of the earths atmosphere
photosphere the inner layaer of the suns atmosphere
chromosphere the middle layer of the suns atmosphere
solar wind a stream of electrically charged particals produced by the suns corona
sunspot a dark area of gas on the sun that is cooler than the surrounding gases
prominence a loop of gas that protudes from the suns surface, linking parts of the sunspot region
solar flare an explosion of hydrogen gas from the suns surface that occour when loops in sunspot regions suddenly contact
greenhouse effect the trapping of heat by a planets atmosphere
terrestrial plants the name given to the four inner planets; mercury, veus, earth, mars
retrograde rotation the spinning motion of a planet from east to west, opposite to the direction of rotation of most planets and moons

Muscle common/scientific names 4th Grade

Scientific Name Common Name
deltoids shoulder muscles
pectorals chest muscles
bicepts front upper are muscles
tricepts back upper arm muscles
obliques stomach muscles
trapezius neck and upper back shoulder muscles
gluteus maximus hip muscles
gastrocnemius calf muscles

nutrition100 review of definitions

word definition
colostrum first milk
hyperplasia increased cell number
hypertrophy increased cell size
sarcopenia decreased lean muscle mass
osteoporosis decreased muscle mass
risk factors increase probability of developing dieases/health problems
overnutrition excess of calories or excess/imbalance of nutrients
food security access to nutrient sound food all the time
entitlement programs persons qualify because they meet eligability requirements
non-entitlement programs limited by spending caps. discretionatory funding
malnutrition inadequate quantity/quality of food
infectious diseases diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites that can be transported from one person to another through air, water, food, etc
degenerative diseases chronic, irreversible diseases characterized by degenration of organs due to in part of personal lifestyle elements like poor food choices, smoking, alchohol, lack of physical activity.
hypertension high blood pressure
atherorsclerosis most common food of cardiovascular disease. Caused by plaques on the inner walls of the arteries
plaques mounds of lipid material mixed with smooth muscle cells and calcium that develop in the artery walls in astherosclerosis
aneurysm the ballooning out of an artery wall at a point that is weakened by deterioration
aorta the large, primary artery that conducts blood from the heart to the body's smaller arteries
stroke the suddens hutting off of blood flow to the brain by a stationary or loose blood clot or the bursting of a vessel
metabolic syndrome a combination of 4 risk factors-diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and high blood cholesterol- that geratly increase a person's risk of developing CVD
systolic pressure the first figure in a blood pressure reading which reflect arterial pressure caused by the contraction of the hearts left ventricle
diastolic pressure the second figure in a blood pressure reading which reflects the arterial pressure when the heart is between beats
cancer a disease in which cells multiply out of control and disrupt normal functioning of one or more organs
caloric effect the drop in cancer incidence seen whenever intake of food energy is restricted
anticarcinogens compounds in food that act in any of several ways to oppose the formation of cancer
cruciferous vegetables veggies with cross shaped bottoms-their intake is associated with low cancer rates in human populations
certified lactation consultant a health care provider, often a regustered nurse, with a specialized training in breast and infant anatomy who teaches the mechanics of breastfeeding to new mothers
alpha-lactalbumin the chief protein in human breast milk
lactoferrin a factor in breast milk that binds iron and keeps it from supporting the growth of the infant's intestinal bacteria
hypoallergenic formulas clinically tested formulas that do not provoke reactions in 90% of infants or children with confirmed cow's milk allergy
milk anemia iron-deficiency anemia caused by drinking so much milk that iron-rich foods are displaced from the diet
allergy an immune reaction to a foreign substance, such as a component of food
antigen a substances foreign to the body that elicits the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from immune system cells
histamine a substance that participates in causing inflammation. produced by the cells of the immune system as part of a local immune reaction to an antigen
anaphylactic shock a life thteatening whole body allergic reaction to an offending substance
epinephrine a hormone of the adrenal gland administered by injection the counteract anaophalactic shock by opening the airways and maintaining heartbeat and blood pressure
food intolerance an adverse affect of a food or food additive not involving an immune response
food aversion an intense dislike of a food, probably biological in nature, resulting from an illness or other negative experience associated with that food
epiphyseal plate a thick, cartilageplike layer at the ends of bones that forms new cells that are eventually calcified, lengthening the bone
puberty the period in life when a person develops sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce
life expectancy the average number of years lived by people in a given society
life span the maximum number of years of life abtainable by a member of a species
longevity long duration of life
arthritis a usually painfaul inflammation of the joints caused by many conditions, including infections, metabolic disturbances, or injury.usually results in alterned joint structure and loss of function
cataracts thickening of the lens of the eye that can lead to blindness. cataracts can be caused by injury, vital infection, toxic substances, genetic disorders, and possibly, some nutrient deficiencies or imbalances
senile dementia the loss of brain function beyond the normal loss of physical adeptness and memory that comes with aging
world food supply the quantity of food, including stores from previous harverst, available to the world's people at a given time
gleaning traditionally, the practice of gathering crops left in the field after a harvest. today, referes to the recovery of excces food from various sources, including restaurants, hotels, and supermarkets
oral rehydration therapy oral fluid replacement for kids with severe diarrhea caused by infectious disease. ORT enables parents to mix a simple solution for their child from substances they have at home
carrying capacity the total number if living organisms that a given environment can support without deteriorating in quality
sustainable the use of resources at such at rate that the earth can keep on replacing them
prolactin milk production
oxytocin "let down" reflex in lactation

drugs

Abrev. meanings
1*,2* 1 hour, 2 hour, etc.
APAP acetaminophen
ASA aspirin
BC birth control
Ca, Ca+ calcium
CHF Congestive heart failure
Cl Chloride, chlorine
Cod codeine
CR Controlled release
DM dextromethorphan
DCN, DN100 Darvocet N-100
doxy doxycycline
EC enteric coated
EC ASA enteric coated aspirin
ER extended release

Mr Fallis vocab

word definitions
personality is the sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs,and values that are characteristic of an individual.
heredity the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children.
instinct is an unchanging, biologically inherited behavior pattern.
sociobiology is the systematic study fo teh biological basis of all social behavior.
aptitude is a capacity to learn a particular skill or acquire a particular body of knowledge
feral children wild or untamed children
socialization the interactive process through which people learn the basic skills, values, beliefs, and behavior patterns of a society
self your conscience awareness of possessing a distinct identity that separates you and your environment from other members of society.
looking-glass self interactive process by which we develop an image of ourselves based on how we imagine we appear to others
role-taking eventually we not only see ourselves as others see us but actually take on or pretend to take the roles of others.
significant others parents, siblings, relatives, and others who have a direct influence on our socialization.
generalized other attitudes, expectations, and viewpoints of society
I UNSOCIALIZED, SPONTANEOUS, SELF-INTERESTED COMPONENT OF PERSONALITY AND SELF-IDENTITY.
me the part of ourself that is aware of the expectations and attitudes of society
peer group primary group composed of individuals of roughly eual age and similar social characteristics.
mass media instruments of communication that reach large audiences with no personal contact between those sending the information and those recieving it
total institution `a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society
resocialization involves a break with past experineces and the learning of newvalues and norms.

Ch. 3 Soil

Definition Vocab Word
The decayed remains of dead plants and animals in soil. Humus
The layer of bits of rocks and humus found on Earth's crust. Soil
A type of soil with very small grains and small spaces between them. Clay
The top layer of soil. Topsoil
Rich soil with lots of humus. Loam
A material found in nature that living things use. Resource
Saving resources by using them carefully. Conservation
Planting strips of different crops next to each other. Strip Cropping
Planting rows of crops around hills instead of up and down their sides. Contour Plowing