psych test 2

word definition
mental set a way of thinking about a problem
functional fixedness thinking of an object only in the way it is supposed to be used or thought of
aha experience solutions become apparent all of a sudden with no shaping
algorithm procedure guarenteed to find a solution IF one exists
heuristic procedure likely to find a solution if it exists
means ends analysis look at the difference between where you are and where you wanna be and make a move to reduce that difference
sub-goals break the problem down into steps and acoomplish each step one at a time to eventually solve the whole problem
analogies find a relation between the current problem and a problem you already know how to solve
graphemic task does the word have a certain letter in it? very shallow processing
phonemic task does the word rhyme with another? medium level processing
semantic task does the word have a certain function? deep processing
modal model of memory short term and long term memory
long term memory where all of our memories are stored
short term memory where cognitive work takes place, where there's info that you're aware of
maintenence rehearsal keep repeating info so you don't forget it
episodic memory memory for individual episodes of your experience
semantic memory memory of general world info
retrieval cue set of info used to probe memory
encoding specificity principle if the match between the retrieval cue and the memory you are trying to retrieve is close, you are more likely to remember it
construction when you integrate your experience with the information you are learning
reconstruction when you retrieve info as a memory, you take the bits of info and conbine them with your experiene
decay when information fades away
interference where your memory is written over by something else
retrieval failure when you use the wrong retrieval cue
social psychology studies how interacting with other people affects our own behavior
attitude locate objects of thought on dimensions of judgement
cognitive aspect of attitude the evaluation you make about something
affective aspect of attitude the emotions aroused by the object
behavioral aspect of attitude your predispostion to act in response to an object
persuasion any attempt to change people's attitudes
latitude of acceptance range in which people will accept an argument and possibly change their views on it
central route of persuasion careful consideration of the logic and sat_flash_1 of a persuasive message
peripheral route of persuasion persuasion based on non-messaed factors
dissonance occurs when you hold two beliefs or desires that are inconsistent
effort justification occurs when something that you value turned out to be not so good so you will convince yourself that it was worth it to eliminate dissonance
approach-approach conflict occurs when you have to choose between two attractive alternatives
consistency in behavior is behavior the same in all circumstances?
distinctiveness in behavior is the behavior distinct to the target or to other things as well?
consensus of behavior do other people behave the same way?
fundamental attribution error bias in tendancy to make certain attributions
conformity the extent to which people will go along with what theyre told; the extent to which they'll yield to real or imagined social pressure
obedience the extent to which people will act upon what they're told
group unanimity if one person breaks the conformity, then the subject does not conform
psychological tests a standardized measure of behavior
reliability occurs if administering the same test over and over again produces similiar results
validity occurs in a test if the test measures what is is supposed to
sat_flash_1 validity of a test does the test cover the specific domain it's supposed to cover?
criterion validity of a test how reliable is the test in predictin preformance in the domain for which is was designed?
construct validity of a test does the test measure a hypothetical construct?
recall the intentional bringing to mind of explicit information, the trasnfer of info from LTM to STM
recognition the matching on an encoded input to a stored respresentation, which allows you to know that it is familiar and that it occured in a particular context, such as on a list

Planets and distance from sun from gjones

mercury 36 million miles
venus 67 million miles
earth 93 million miles
mars 142 million miles
jupiter 484 million miles
saturn 888 million miles
uranus 1.8 billion miles
neptune 2.8 billion miles
pluto 3.6 billion miles

J White – 6wks exam review

Question Answer
Energy is the ability to cause __________. Change
When something is able to change in its enviroment or itself, it has _________. Energy
Energy in the form of motion Kinetic Energy
Kinetic Energy depends on two quantities Mass and velocity
The formula for Kinetic Energy is KE = 1/2mass X velocity^2 (velocity is squared)
The SI unit of energy Joule
Motionless objects that have energy have ___________ Potential energy
Potential energy is the energy of _________. Position
Energy stored by things that stretch or compress Elastic Potential Energy
Energy stored in chemical bonds between atoms Chemical Potential energy
Energy stored by things found above the Earth's surface Gravitational Potential Energy
The amount of GPE in an object depends on mass, acceleration due to gravity and heith above the ground.
What number is the acceleration in the GPE equation? 9.8 m/s^2
The unit for mass kilograms
The unit for height meters
You have two objects. One is 3 feet above the ground and the other is 6 feet above the ground. Which object will have MORE GPE? The second object. Why???
Two objects are on a shelf at the same height. The first object has a mass of 5 kg and the second object has a mass of 10kg. Which object has a lower GPE? The first object. Why???
As an object falls from a shelf, the ________energy is decreasing and its __________is increasing. potential, kinetic
An example of an object with electrical energy would be a ____________. Light bulb.
The warmth you feel from a light bulb is __________. Thermal energy.
When a car uses gasoline, the fuel is stored in the form of _________. chemical potential energy
The engine transfers the energy in the gasoline from ___________ to ___________. chemical potential energy to kinetic energy
Energy is converted between potential and kinetic energy. The total amount of energy in a system is ____________. Mechanical energy
The formula for Mechanical Energy is _________- ME = KE + PE
The mechanical energy is due to the __________and _________ of an object. position and motion
When a baseball is hit will it have high KE or low KE? Will it have high GPE or low GPE? high KE, low GPE
After the ball is hit, it soon begins to fall. As the ball is falling will it have high or low GPE? High or low KE? low GPE, high KE
While you are on a swing, at the highest point, your energy will be in the form of _________ potential energy, KE = 0
As you begin to fall towards the earth, your energy is in the form of ___________ Kinetic Energy
Energy can not be created or destroyed Law of Conservation of Energy
When you are blow drying you hair, the law of conservation of energy is in effect. The Energy going in to the hair dryer is ____________. Electrical Energy
When you blowdry you hair, the energy going out of the hair dryer is _____________________ Thermal, Kinetic, and sound energy
When you are on a swing, what slows you down? friction ( from the ropes or chains) and air resistance
Nuclear Fusion Mass is converted into energy. In Nuclear Fusion, nuclei are fused together. ( How the sun heats and and gives light to the Earth)
Nuclear Fission Nuclei do not fuse. they are broken apart. Heat is released.
Where do we find evidence of Nuclear Fission? Nuclear Power Plants. Generation of Energy
Energy in food Chemical Potential Energy. When you digest food, the molecules break down and the energy in the chemical bonds is released.
Calorie Used to measure how much energy you get from various foods. 1 Calorie is equivalent to 4,180 Joules.
Green plants store energy in the form of __________ energy Light
Friction causes some of the object's mechanical energy to be converted to _________ energy Thermal energy.
If you don't SEE something move, is it possible that motion took place? Yes. For example, when you look outside and see a mailman at your mailbox and then notice later that he is 5 houses down. You did not see the truck move but it did.
What are the the requirements to have motion? distance and time
What helps you determine if something has moved or not? A refernce point
What is the SI Unit for distance? meter (m) or kilometer (km)
What is distance? How far an object has moved
What is displacement? the distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point.
What is speed? The distance and object travels per unit of time.
What is rate? Any change over time.
Formula for speed – S = d/t ( distance divided by time)
Units for speed – m/s or km/min
What is the formula for GPE? GPE = mass X 9.8 m/s^2 X height
When you are graphing speed, what will be the x axis? y axis? x = time y = distance
What is average speed? the total distance traveled divided by the total time.
What does a speedometer tell you? Instantaneous speed
What is instantaneous speed? the speed at any given point in time.
On a distance-time graph, you see that there is a horizontal line for abour 20 minutes. What does this mean? zero speed ( if someone rested for 20 minutes)
Velocity? Speed and Direction of an object. Example: 3m/s north
Motion of the Earth's Crust: So gradual that you don't even notice its movement.
What kind of acceleration will you have when a car is speeding up? slowing down? speeding up – positive acceleration; slowing down – negative acceleration
What is acceleration? The change in velocity ( m/s) over time (s) A = vf-vi / t Acceleration is equal to the intial velocity subtracted from the final velocity in an amount of time in seconds
6m/s^2 positive acceleration at a rate of 6 meters per second per second
-6 m/s^2 negative acceleration at a rate of 6 m/s/s
What is force? Force is a push or pull that one body exerts on another.
What happens to the motion of an object when you exert a force on it? A force can cause an object to change.
Balanced forces Action on ONE object… 2 equal size forces but in opposite directions. EX: 2 students pushing on a box and the box does not move
Net Force? When two or more forces act on an object at teh same time, the forces are combined. If the net force is zero, the forces are balanced.
Unbalanced forces unequal forces. example: two students push a box, and they are both standing on the left side of the box. the forces may be equal in size BUT ARE NOT OPPOSITE IN DIRECTION.
Inertia? the tendency of an object to resist change in its motion. If an object is moving, it will continue moving in that direction until an unbalanced force acts on it.
Newton's First Law of Motion An object moving at a constant velocity ( or speed) will continue to move at that velocit unless a force acts on it.
What will increasing the mass of an object do to its inertia? Increase the mass increase the inertia
Is m/s a correct unit for acceleration? NO. m/s is the unti for velocity.
When a passenger does NOT wear a seatbelt in the car The passenger will hit the windshield due to the inertia of the person NOT wearing a seat belt.
DO I need to memorize the formula for KE ( kinetic energy) and for GPE ( gravitational potential energy GPE) ? Yes
What is the formula for Acceleration? A = F/M (acceleration equals force divided by mass)
What the units for Force? Newtons
What is the formula to solve for Force? F = M X A ( mass times acceleration)
The acceleration of an object depends on what two things? mass and force
What are the units for mass? grams or kilograms
Newton's second law of motion the net force acting on an object causes the object to accelerate in teh direction of the net force. Acceleration is determined by the mass of the object and the size ( in Newtons) of the force.
Friction? Friction is the force that OPPOSES motion between two surfaces that are touching each other. ( example: Why a skateboard gradally slows to a stop)
Static Friction The friction between two objects that are NOT moving past each other.
Sliding Friction is the force that opposes the motion of two surfaces sliding past each other. Adding more force will help overcome the sliding force ( example: when you are pushing a box – more force ( when you have someone help you push) overcomes sliding friction
Rolling Friction What makes a train's wheels turn on tracks or a car's wheels turn on the road
Air resistance reacts in the opposite direction of the falling object. This is why a piece of paper floats to the ground slower that a wadded up paperball, when they are dropped at the same time.
Weight The gravitational force exerted on an object. Weight = mass X 9.8 m/s^2 ; Another word for Weight is gravitational force.
Newton's Third Law to every action force their is an equal and opposite reaction force. Action-reaction Pairs.
centripetal force an unbalanced force acting on an object in the direction towards the center.
centripetal acceleration acceleration towards the center of a curved or circular path.
Momentum How much force is needed to change an objects motion
Momentum formula Momentum ( p) = mass X velocity
What does "p" stand for? Momentum
Do I need to know the formula for force and momentum? Yes!
If you are standing at the top of a hill and someone shoves you, what kind of acceleration will you have as you roll down the hill? positive
What is the best thing you should use to study? The Ch 2,3,4 Notetaking worksheets
Do I need to know the differences concerning Newton's Laws? YES! You need to know what they mean and what formulas are associated with them.
Should I check out a book after school on Monday? Yes, you can if you feel you need to!
When is the 6 weeks exam? Tuesday, February 8th
Projectile Motion When you toss a ball ( which is called a projectile) you have noticed that a ball does not travel in a straight line. The ball tends to curve downward.
Projectile Anything thrown or shot into the air.
Projectile path Because of Earth's gravitational pull and their own inertia, projectiles follow a curved path.
Example of centripetal force when a car rounds a sharp curve ona highway, the centripetal force is the friction between the tires and the road surface.


Organelle Functions
Cytoskeleton "Cell Skeleton"; responsible for cell shape and support.
Ribosome Synthesizes proteins
Endoplasmic reticulum "Big bag of chemicals" involved in: 1) production of some proteins,2) production of phospholipids,3) synthesizing steroid hormones and, 4) detoxifying drugs.
Cilia and Flagella "Small hairs" involved in movement. Cilia line trachea and move mucus; Flagella are used to move cells, e.g. sperm.
Mitochondria "Powerhouse">involved in ATP production.

Four Different ways to Stretch

Stretch Definition
Active Employs repetitive, controlled movements through the range of movement of the joint. Purpose is to prepare joints and muscles for activity.
Static To increase flexibility. Muscle is slowly stretched until it gently pulls and then is held. Does not trigger stretch reflex. Should be felt in muscle belly, not tendons or joint.
Ballistic Causes greater reflex muscular contraction.Used to mimic sport specific activities. Employs rapid bouncing or bobbing motions. Incorporates high force, short duration actions. Should not be used by general population.
PNF Purpose is to increase flexibility. Statically stretching a muscle, isometrically contracting the muscle, and then immediately lengthening it into a greater range of motion. Developed in physio for rehab.

JWhite – CH 5

Question Answer
What is Work? The transfer of energy that occurs when a force makes an object move.
Properties of work: Force is a push or pull. For work to be done, a force must make something move, For example, If you push against a desk and it does not move, you have not done any work.
How are work and energy related? When work is done, a transfer of energy always occurs. For example, if you are carrying books you are increasing the potential energy if you raise the books higher.
What is energy? The ability to cause change. If something has energy, it can transfer energy to another object by doing work on that object.
What is the formula for Work? Work = force X distance
What are the units for work? Joules ( J)
What is Power? The amount of work done in a certain amount of time.
How is Power related to Work? Power is the amount of work done in a certain amount of time.
What is the formula used to calculate Power? Power = Work/Time
What are the units for Power? J/s ( Joules per second)
Work can also be done using electrical energy to produce heat and light. IN this case, energy is still transfered from one object to another. What is the equation for Power? Power = Energy/time
How are Power, work and time related? Power equals work divided by time.
A person pushed a bowling ball 20 m. The amount of work done was 1470J. How much force did the person exert? F = w / d 1470N/ 20m = 73.5 N
What is a machine? A machine is a device that makes work done easier.
How can machines make work easier? by increasing the force that can be applied to an object. For example, no one can lift a car, but a car jack can multiply your force to help you lift the car.
How does a ramp make lifting an object easier? Less force is needed to lift the object.
What is effort force? The force applied to a machine. (the force YOU apply to the machine)
What is the resistance force? The force applied by the machine to overcome resistance ( the force THE MACHINE exerts on the object you are trying to move)
When you pull a nail out with a hammer, what is the resistance force and what is the effort force? Effort Force – The force you apply to the handle Resistance Force – the force the claw on the hammer end applied to the nail.
What is Win (work input)? The work done by you on the machine
What is Wout (work output)? The work done by the machine
Conservation of Energy and Work Because energy can not be created or destroyed, the amount of energy the machine transfers can not be greater than the amount of energy you transfer to the machine. A machine can not create energy, so Wout is always smaller than Win.
Ideal Machine A perfect machine where there is no heat or friction. Win = Wout
Work Input = Effort force X Effort distance
Work out = Resistance force X resistance distance
Mechanical Advantage The number of times a machine multiplies the effort force
AMA (actual mechanical advantage) AMA = Resistance force/ effort force
AMA = 1 When the effort force is equal to the resistance force
IMA ( ideal mechanical advantage) Calculated using distances ( but AMA is calculated using forces since you have already done work)
IMA of a lever lever effort arm/lever resistance arm
IMA of a pulley IMA = number of supporting strands If the string is being pulled down, do not count it as a support strand.
IMA of an inclined plane = length of ramp/height of ramp
IMA of wheel an axle Radius of wheel/radius of axle
When is the test? Monday!!!
Efficiency a measure of how much of the work put into a machine is changed into useful output work by the machine. A machine with high efficiency produces less heat from friction so more of the input work is changed to useful output
Calculating efficiency efficiency = wout/ win x100%
A claw hammer is used to pull a nail from a board. If the claw exerts a resistance of 2500N to the applied force of 125N, what is the AMA of the hammer? AMA = 2500N / 125N = 20
What is a Wheel and Axle? machine with 2 wheels of different sizes rotating together. The IMA is the radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle
Inclined plane sloping surface that reduces the amount of force required to do work. Less force is required if a ramp is longer and less steep
Screw inclined plane wrapped around a spiral around a cylindrical post
wedge an inclined plane with one or more sloping sides
compound machine uses a combination of two or more simple machines
First class lever fulcrum is located between the effort force and the resistance force.
second class lever resistance force is located between the effort force and the fulcrum
third class lever effort force is located between the resistance force and the fulcrum
block and tackle system of pulleys consisting of fixed and moveable pulleys
When a fixed pulley lifts an object (performs work), what does the PULLEY do? The pulley decrease the force required to move the object AND changes the direction of the force required
How do you find the ideal mechanical advantage of a lever? the effort distance ( distance of the effort arm – effort force to the fulcrum) divided by the resistance force ( distance from the resistance force to the fulcrum) IF YOU DON'T GET THIS PLEASE LET ME KNOW!!!
How would you find the IMA of a lever that is 4 m long and has an effort arm of 3m? FIrst you have to find what the resistance arm is. If the effort arm is 3m then the resistance arm must be 1m, since the fulcrm would be between the resistance and the effort. To calculate IMA it is effort/resistance so, IMA = 3
What does IMA mean? AMA? IMA – ideal mechanical advantage ( used when you have distances in meters) AMA – Actual Mechanical Advantage – used when the work has alread been done, units are in N ( force)

7th grade genetics #15388

Question Answer
heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring
gene a factor that controls a trait
trait a characteristic that an organism passes on to its offspring. (color of hair, eye color)
mutation a change of chromosome
hybrid two different alleles for a trait (Aa, Tt, Bb)
Punnett square a chart that shows possible gene combinations
dominant a trait that shows up on an organism
recessive an allele that is covered up when a dominant allele is present. (Aa, Dd, Bb) recessive alleles-lower case letters
probability the likelihood that an event will occur
purebred 2 of the same alleles for a trait (TT, BB, AA)

actions of muscles for AP2 test 1

Question Answer
gluteus maximus extension of femur at hip; lateral rotation of extended hip
gluteus medius abduction, medial rotation of femur at hip ( anterior fibers)
gluteus minimus abduction; medial rotation of femur at hip
six deep lateral rotators lateral rotation of femur at hip
psoas major flexion of femur at hip joint; if thigh is fixed, flexion of trunk at hip joint
iliacus(iliopsoas) flexion of femur at hip joint: if thigh is fixed, flextion of trunk at hip joint
tensor fasciae latae prevents collapse of extended knee in ambulation; assits abduction, medial rotation, flexion of femur at hip and extension of knee
sartorius assists flexion, abduction, lateral rotation of femur at hip, assists flexion, medial rotation of knee ( tailor position)
rectus femoris extension of knee; assists flexion of femur at hip
vastus medialis extension of knee
vastus lateralis extension of knee
vastus intermedius extension of knee
gracilis adduction of femur at hip; assists flexion and medial roatation of flexed knee
biceps femoris long head: extension of hip; both heads; flexion of knee, lateral rotation of flexed knee
semitendinosus extension of hip, flexion of knee
semimembranosus medial rotation of flexed knee, extension of hip


Word Definition
Adaptation a character or structure that helps an organism live and reproduce successfully in its environment
habitat The area or place where an organism naturally lives in an ecosystem
diversity the variety of life
species the basic unit of classification, the division of a genus, made of very similar organiisms that are able to mate and reproduce offspring of the same type
variation a difference within the species
sexual reproduction Reproduction through the union of a male and a female gamete, each contributing genetic material to the offspring
zygote A cell formed by the union of two sets of genes when a male and a female unite; a fertilizied egg
asexual reproduction Reproduction in which a single individual copies its genetic material
Evolution The concept originated by Charles Darwin, explaining that organisms are the products of historical change and that new species gradually developed from previous ones
natural selection The process by which organisms that are adapted to their environment survive and reproduce, passing there traits on to their offspring
population A group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area
fossil Remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
extinct Referring to forms of life that have died out
fossil record Record of life on earth provided by fossils
mold A fossil impression left in rock by the hard parts of an organism
cast A fossil formed by minerals in water that build up in a mold

architecture terminology

Term Definition
awning A rooflike structure, often made of canvas or plastic, that serves as a shelter, as over a storefront, window, door, or deck.
balustrade A rail and the row of balusters or posts that support it, as along the front of a gallery.
bargeboard A board, often ornately carved, attached along the projecting edge of a pitched roof in front of a gable.
buttress A structure, usually brick or stone, built against a wall for support or reinforcement.
colonnade A series of columns placed at regular intervals.
corbel bracket of stone, wood, brick, or other building material, projecting from the face of a wall and generally used to support a cornice or arch.
cornice A horizontal molded projection that crowns or completes a building or wall.
cresting The ridge on a roof.
cupola A domelike structure surmounting a roof or dome, often used as a lookout or to admit light and air.
dormer A window set vertically into a small gable projecting from a sloping roof.
dome A vaulted roof having a circular, polygonal, or elliptical base and a generally hemispherical or semispherical shape.
edifice A building, especially one of imposing appearance or size.
eaves The projecting overhang at the lower edge of a roof.
facade The face of a building.
fascia A horizontal piece (such as a board) covering the joint between the top of a wall and the projecting eaves.
frieze A decorated band along the upper part of an interior wall.
finial A formal ornament at the top of a canopy, gable, pinnacle, etc., usually in the general shape of a fleur-de-lis.
gable The triangular upper portion of a wall at the end of a pitched roof. It typically has straight sides, but there are many variations.
garret A flat horizontal band or member between moldings, especially in a classical entablature.
lattice An open framework made of strips of metal, wood, or similar material overlapped or overlaid in a regular, usually crisscross pattern.
lintel A horizontal beam or stone bridging an opening, most often a door.
mansard This roof is flat on top, sloping steeply down on all four sides, thus appearing to sheath the entire top story of a house or other building.
mullion A vertical post or other upright that divides a window or other opening into two or more panes. Sometimes only ornamental.
parapet A low wall placed to protect any spot where there's a sudden drop, such as at the edge of a bridge or housetop.
pilaster A shallow pier or a rectangular column projecting only slightly from a wall. Primarily decorative.
portico A roofed entrance to a house that is columned like a temple front.
quoin The dressed stones at the corners of buildings, usually laid so their faces are alternately large and small. Usually in contrasting color of brick from the rest of the wall. Common accent in Georgian homes.
spire a tall tower that forms the superstructure of a building (usually a church or temple) and that tapers to a point at the top
steeple A tall tower forming the superstructure of a building, such as a church or temple, and usually surmounted by a spire.
turret A very small, slender tower. In modern homes, usually only ornamental.
verandah A porch or balcony, usually roofed and often partly enclosed, extending along the outside of a building. Also called gallery.
entablature The upper section of a classical building, resting on the columns and constituting the architrave, frieze, and cornice.