nutrition100 review of definitions

word definition
colostrum first milk
hyperplasia increased cell number
hypertrophy increased cell size
sarcopenia decreased lean muscle mass
osteoporosis decreased muscle mass
risk factors increase probability of developing dieases/health problems
overnutrition excess of calories or excess/imbalance of nutrients
food security access to nutrient sound food all the time
entitlement programs persons qualify because they meet eligability requirements
non-entitlement programs limited by spending caps. discretionatory funding
malnutrition inadequate quantity/quality of food
infectious diseases diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites that can be transported from one person to another through air, water, food, etc
degenerative diseases chronic, irreversible diseases characterized by degenration of organs due to in part of personal lifestyle elements like poor food choices, smoking, alchohol, lack of physical activity.
hypertension high blood pressure
atherorsclerosis most common food of cardiovascular disease. Caused by plaques on the inner walls of the arteries
plaques mounds of lipid material mixed with smooth muscle cells and calcium that develop in the artery walls in astherosclerosis
aneurysm the ballooning out of an artery wall at a point that is weakened by deterioration
aorta the large, primary artery that conducts blood from the heart to the body's smaller arteries
stroke the suddens hutting off of blood flow to the brain by a stationary or loose blood clot or the bursting of a vessel
metabolic syndrome a combination of 4 risk factors-diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and high blood cholesterol- that geratly increase a person's risk of developing CVD
systolic pressure the first figure in a blood pressure reading which reflect arterial pressure caused by the contraction of the hearts left ventricle
diastolic pressure the second figure in a blood pressure reading which reflects the arterial pressure when the heart is between beats
cancer a disease in which cells multiply out of control and disrupt normal functioning of one or more organs
caloric effect the drop in cancer incidence seen whenever intake of food energy is restricted
anticarcinogens compounds in food that act in any of several ways to oppose the formation of cancer
cruciferous vegetables veggies with cross shaped bottoms-their intake is associated with low cancer rates in human populations
certified lactation consultant a health care provider, often a regustered nurse, with a specialized training in breast and infant anatomy who teaches the mechanics of breastfeeding to new mothers
alpha-lactalbumin the chief protein in human breast milk
lactoferrin a factor in breast milk that binds iron and keeps it from supporting the growth of the infant's intestinal bacteria
hypoallergenic formulas clinically tested formulas that do not provoke reactions in 90% of infants or children with confirmed cow's milk allergy
milk anemia iron-deficiency anemia caused by drinking so much milk that iron-rich foods are displaced from the diet
allergy an immune reaction to a foreign substance, such as a component of food
antigen a substances foreign to the body that elicits the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from immune system cells
histamine a substance that participates in causing inflammation. produced by the cells of the immune system as part of a local immune reaction to an antigen
anaphylactic shock a life thteatening whole body allergic reaction to an offending substance
epinephrine a hormone of the adrenal gland administered by injection the counteract anaophalactic shock by opening the airways and maintaining heartbeat and blood pressure
food intolerance an adverse affect of a food or food additive not involving an immune response
food aversion an intense dislike of a food, probably biological in nature, resulting from an illness or other negative experience associated with that food
epiphyseal plate a thick, cartilageplike layer at the ends of bones that forms new cells that are eventually calcified, lengthening the bone
puberty the period in life when a person develops sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce
life expectancy the average number of years lived by people in a given society
life span the maximum number of years of life abtainable by a member of a species
longevity long duration of life
arthritis a usually painfaul inflammation of the joints caused by many conditions, including infections, metabolic disturbances, or injury.usually results in alterned joint structure and loss of function
cataracts thickening of the lens of the eye that can lead to blindness. cataracts can be caused by injury, vital infection, toxic substances, genetic disorders, and possibly, some nutrient deficiencies or imbalances
senile dementia the loss of brain function beyond the normal loss of physical adeptness and memory that comes with aging
world food supply the quantity of food, including stores from previous harverst, available to the world's people at a given time
gleaning traditionally, the practice of gathering crops left in the field after a harvest. today, referes to the recovery of excces food from various sources, including restaurants, hotels, and supermarkets
oral rehydration therapy oral fluid replacement for kids with severe diarrhea caused by infectious disease. ORT enables parents to mix a simple solution for their child from substances they have at home
carrying capacity the total number if living organisms that a given environment can support without deteriorating in quality
sustainable the use of resources at such at rate that the earth can keep on replacing them
prolactin milk production
oxytocin "let down" reflex in lactation