notes on ch 4

Question Answer
cuticle waxy, waterproof layer that covers leaves; it helps plants slow down evaporation
vascular tissue tube like structues where water minerals and food move
nonvascular plants low growing; do not have roots to absorb water; cannot grow tall because they have thin cell walls
vascular plants have a true vascular system; better suited to life in dry areas than nonvascular plants; can grow tall
sporophyte plant produces spores that develop into next stage of life cycle
gameophyte plant produces sperm cells and egg cells that join to form a zygote and the cycle repeats
mosses 10000 species; most diverse group of nonvascular plants
rhizoids anchor moss into ground instead of roots
liverworts 8000 species; often found growing on moist rocks or soil along the sides of streams; named for the shape of the plants leaflike gameophyte
hornworts fewer than 100 species; seldom found on rocks or tree trunks; usually live in moist soil mixed with grasses; named for the slender curved structures that grow out of the gametophytes
seedless vascular plants reproduce with spores
ferns 12000 species; have true stem roots and leaves; stems are underground
fronds a ferns leaves
horsetails very few species
club mosses have true stems roots and leaves; only a few hundred species
pholem carries food that was made in the leaves
xylem carries water and minerals from soild
pollen tiny structures that contain cells that will become sperm cells
seed structure that contains a young lant inside a protective covering
parts of a seed embryo; stored food; seed coat
embryo plant that deelops from the zygote
cotyledons embryos seed leaves
seed dispersal by animals; wind; or water
germination occurs when the emryo begins to row and pushes out of the seed
roots anchor a plant in the ground; absorb water and minerals; and sometimes store food
fibrous root system consits of many similarly sized roots that form a tangled mass
taproot system one thick long root with smaller roots branching off it
root cap protects the root from injury
stem carries substnces btwn the plants roots and leaves; provides support for the plant; and holds up the leaes so they get sunlight
herbaceous stems contain no wood and are soft
woody stems hard and rigid
annual rings represent a trees yearly growth; one pair of light and dark rings represents on years growth
leaves capture suns energey and carry-out photosythesis
transpiration process where water evaporates from a plants leaves
gymnosperm seed plant that produces naked seeds; have needle-like/scalelike leaves; deep growing root systems
cycads grow mainly in tropical and subtropical areas; look like plam trees with cones
conifers cone-bearing; largest most divers group of gymnosperms; keep their leaves
ginkgoes only one species alive today; tolerate air pollution
gneopytes live in hot desers and tropical rain forests; either trees shrubs or vines
reproduction of gymnosperms pollen falls from a male cone onto a female cone; a sperm cell and egg cell join together in an ovule; the seed develops on the scale of the female cone
angiosperms have seeds protected in a fruit; produce flowers
sepal protects the deeloping flower
petals colorful; leaflike
stamen male reproductive part
pistil female part; found in the center of flowers; some flowers have two or more pistils
stigma sticky tip of the istil
style slender tube that connects the stigma to the ovary
ovary protects the seeds as they develop
pollination of angiosperms pollen falls on a flowers stigma; the sperm cell and egg cell join; the zygote develops into the embryo part of the seed
monocot flowers have petals in multiples of three; have long slender leaves with veins running parallel; bundles of vascular tissue in stems are usually scattered randomly
dicots have petals in either multiples of four or five; wide leaves veins branch out; stems have bundles of vasuclar tissue arranged in a ring