Chapter 1-6

Question Answer
health a state of complete well being, including physical, psychological, spiritual, social, intellectual and environmental components
wellness a state of optimal health
health promotion an educational and informational process in which people are helped to change attitudes and behaviors in an effort to improve their health
self-efficacy belief in ones ability to accomplish a goal or change a behavior
locus of control an individuals belief about the source of power and influence over his or her life
reinforcement reward or punishment for a behavior that will increase or decrease ones likelihood of repeating the behavior
norms the unwritten rules regarding behavior and conduct expected or accepted by a group
self-talk repetition of positive messages about ones self-worth to learn more optimistic patterns of thought, felling, and behavior
protection measures that an individual can take when participation in risky behavior to prevent injury or unwanted risks
emotional health the ability to express and acknowledge ones feelings and moods
mental health the ability to perceive reality as it is, to respond to its challenges, and to develop rational strategies for living
spiritual health the ability to identify ones basic purpose in life and to achieve ones full potential: the sense of connectedness to a greater power
culture the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices of a group that are internalized by an individual within the group
emotional intelligence a term used by some psychologists to evaluate the capacity of people to understand themselves and relate well with others
spiritual intelligence the capacity to sense, understand, and tap into ourselves, others, and the world around us
self-actualization a state of wellness and fulfillment that can be achieved once certain human needs are satisfied: living ones full potential
values the criteria by which one makes choices about ones thoughts and actions and goals and ideals
self-esteem confidence and satisfaction in oneself
optimism the tendency to seek out, remember, and expect pleasurable experiences
altruism acts of helping or giving to others without thought of self-benefit
autonomy the ability to draw on internal resources: independence from familial and societal influences
locus of control an individuals belief about the source of power and influence over his or her life
assertive behabing in a confident manner to make your needs and desires clear to others in a nonhostile way
social isolation a felling of unconnectedness with others caused by and reinforced by infrequency of social contacts
social phobia a severe form of social anxiety marked by extreme fears and avoidance of social situation
mental disorder behavioral or psychological syndrome associated with distress or disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom`
anxiety a feeling of apprehension and dread, with or without a known cause: may range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by physical symptoms
depression feelings of unhappiness and despair: as a mental illness, also characterized by an inability to funcion normally
neuropsychiatry the study of the brain and mind
neuron the basic working unit of the brain, which transmits information from the senses to the brain and from the brain to specific body parts: each nerve cell consists of an axon, an axon terminal, and dendrites
glia support cells for neurons in the brain and spinal cord that separate the brain from the bloodstream, assist in the growth of neurons, speed transmission of nerve impulses, and eliminate damaged neurons
nucleus the central part of a cell, contained in the cell body of a neuron
axon the long fiber that conducts impulses from the neurons nucleus to its dendrites
axon terminal the ending of an axon, from which impulses are transmitted to a dendrite of another neuron
dendrites branching fibers of a neuron that receive impulses from axon terminals of other neurons and conduct these impulses toward the nucleus
neurotransmitters chemicals released by neurons that stimulate or inhibit the action of other neurons
synapse a specialized site at which electrical impulses are transmitted from the axon terminal of one neuron to a dendrite of another
receptors molecules on the surface of neurons on which neurotransmitters bind after their release from other neurons
reuptake reabsorption by the originating cell of neurotransmitters that have not connected with receptors and have been left in synapses
antidepressant a drug used primarily to treat symptoms of depression
rapid-eye-movement(REM) sleep regularly occurring periods of sleep during which the most active dreaming takes place
anxiety disorders a group of psychological disorders involving episodes of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness, stemming from the anticipaiton of danger and sometimes accompanied by physical symptoms, which cause significant distress and impairment to an individual
phobia an anxiety disorder marked by an inordinate fear of an object, a class of objects, or a situation, resulting in extreme avoidance behaviors
panic attak a short episode characterized by physical sensations of light-headedness, dizziness, hyperventilation, and numbness of extremities, accompanied by an inexplicable terror, usually of a physical disaster such as death
generalized anxiety disorder(GAD) an anxiety disorder characterized as chronic distress
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) an anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions and/or compulsions that impair ones ability to function and form relationships
panic disorder an anxiety disorder in which the apprehension or experience of recurring panic attacks is so intense that normal funcioning is impaired
depressive disorders a group of psychological disorder involving pervasive and sustained depression
major depression sadness that doesnt end
bipolar disorder severe depression alternating with periods of manic activity and elation
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a spectrum of difficulties in controlling motion and sustaining attention, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility
schizophrenia a general term for a group of mental disorders with characteristic psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thought patterns during the active phase of the illness, and a duration of at least six months
psychiatrist licensed medical doctor with additional training in psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, and treatment of mental disorders
psychologist mental health-care professionals who have completed doctoral or graduate programs in psychology and are trained in a variety of psychotherapeutic techniques, but who are not medically trained and do not prescribe medications
certified social worker a person who has completed a two year graduate program in counseling people with mental problems
psychiatric nurse a nurse with special training and experience in mental health care
marriage and family therapist a psychiatrist, psychologist, or social worker who specializes in marriage and family counseling
psychotherapy treatment designed to produce a response by psychological rather than physical means, such as a suggestion, persuasion, reassurance, and support
psychodynamic interpreting behaviors in terms of early experiences and unconscious influences
cognitive therapy a technique used to identify an individuals beliefs and attitudes, recognize negative thought patterns and educate in alternative ways of thinking
behavior therapy psychotherapy that emphasizes application of the principles of learning to substitute desirable responses and behavior patterns for undesirable ones
interpersonal therapy (IPT) a technique used to develop communication skills and relationships
psychiatric drugs medications that regulate a persons mental, emotional, and physical funcions to facilitate normal funcioning
stress the nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it: may be characterized by muscle tension and acute anxiety, or may be a positive force for action
stressor specific or nonspecific agents or situations that cause the stress response in a body
eustress positive stress, which stimulates a person to function properly
distress a negative stress that may result in illness
general adaptation syndrome (GAS) the sequenced physiological response to a stressful situation: consists of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
homeostasis the bodys natural state of balance or stability
adaptive response the bodys attempt to reestablish homeostasis or stability
allostasis the bodys ability to adapt to constantly changing environments
psychoneuroimmunology a scientific field that explores the relationships between and among the mind, the central nervous system, and the immune system
migrane headache severe headache resulting from the constriction, then dilation of blood vessels within the brain: sometimes accompanied by vomiting and nausea
burnout a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion resulting from constant or repeated emotional pressure
defense mechanism a psychological process that alleviates anxiety and eliminates mental conflict: includes denial, displacement, projection, rationalizaation, reaction formation, and repression
progressive relaxation a method of reducing muscle tension by contracting, then relaxing certain areas of the body
visualization an approach to stress control, self healing, or motivating life changes by means of guided, or directed, imagery
meditation a group of approaches that use quiet sitting, breathing techniques, and or chanting to relax, improve concentration, and become attuned to ones inner self
mindfullness a method of stress reduction that involves experiencing the physical and mental sensations of the present moment
biofeedback atechnique of becoming aware, with the aid of external monitoring devices, of internal physiological activities in order to develop the capability of altering them
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the repeated reliving of a trauma through nightmares or recollection
active stretching a technique that involves stretching a muscle by contracting the opposing muscle
acute injury physical injury
aerobic exercise physical activity in which sufficient or excess oxygen is continually supplied to the body
anaerobic exercise physical activity in which the body ddevelops an oxygen deficit
anabolic steroids drugs derived from testosterone and approved for medical use, but often used by athletes to increase their musculature and weight
ballistic stretching rapid bouncing movements
body composition the relative amounts of fat and lean tissue (bone, muscle, organs, water) in the body
body mass index (BMI) a mathematical formula that correlates with body fat: the ration of weight to height squared
cardiorespiratory fitness the ability of the heart and blood vessels to circulate blood through the body efficiently
conditioning the gradual building up of the body to enhance one or more of the three main components of physical fitness: flexibility, cardiorespiratory or aerobic fitness, and muscular strength and endurance
cross-training alternating to or more different types of fitness activites
dynamic flexibility the ability to move a joint quickly and fluidly throught its entire range of motion with little resistance
endorphins mood elevating, pain killing chemicals produced by the brain
endurance the ability to withstand the stress of continued physical exertion
ergogenic aids dietary supplements that purport to boost strength and enhance athletic performance, such as androstenedione and creatine
FITT a formula that describes the frequency, intensity, type, and length of time for physical activity
flexibility the range of motion allowed by ones joints: determined by the length o muscles, tendons, and ligaments attached to the joints
isokinetic habing the same force: exercise with specialized equipment that provides resistance equal to the force applied by the user throughout the entire range of motion
isometric of the same length: exercise in which muscles increase their tension with out shortening in length, such as when pushing an immovable object
isotonic having the same tension or tone: exercise requiring the repetition of an action that creates tension, such as weight lifting or calisthenics
muscular fitness the amount of strength and level of endurance in the bodys muscles
osteoporosis a condition common in older people in which the bones become increasingly soft and porous, making them susceptible to injury
overload principle providing a greater stress or demand on the body than it is normally accustomed to handling
overloading method of physical training involving increasing the number of repetitions of the amount of resistance gradually to work the muscle to temporary fatigue
overuse injuries physical injuries to joints of muscles, such as strains, fractures, and tendinitis, which result from overdoing a repitive activity
passive stretching a stretching technique in which an external force or resistance helps the joints move through their range of motion
physical fitness the ability to respond to routine physical demands, with enough reserve energy to cope with a sudden challenge
reversibility principle the physical venefits of exercise are lost through disuse or inactivity
progressive overloading gradually increasing physical challenges once the body adapts to the stress placed upon it to produce max benefits
rating of perceived exertion a self assessment scale that rates symptoms o fbreathlessness and fatigue
rep in weight training a single performance of a movement or exercise
resting heart rate the number of heartbeats per minute during inactivity
sets in weight training the number of reps of the same movement or exercise
specificity principle each part of the body adapts to a particular type and amount of stress placed upon it
static flexibility the ability to assume and maintain an extended position at one end point in a joints range of motion
static stretching a gradual stretch held ffor a short time of ten to thirts seconds
strength physical power: the max weight one can lift, push, or press in one effort
target heart rate sixty to eighty five percent of the max heart rate: the heart rate at which one derives max cardiovascular benefit from aerobic exercise
waist to hip ratio the proportion of ones waist circumference to ones hip circumference
additives substances added to foods to enhance certain qualities, such as appearance, taste, or freshness
amino acids organic compounds containing nitrogen, carbon, gydrogen, and oxygen: the essential building blocks of proteins
antioxidants substances that prevent the damaging effects of oxidation in cells
BOTULISM possibly fatal food poisoning, caused by a type of bacterium that grows and produces its toxin in the absence of air and is found in improperly canned food
calories the amount of energy required to raise the temp of 1 degree celsius. in everyday usage related to the energy sat_flash_1 of foods and the energy expended in activities, a calorie is actually the equivalent of a thousand such calories, or a kilocalorie
carbs organic compounds, such as starches, sugars, and glycogen, that are composed of carbon, gydrogen, and oxygen, and are sources of bodily energy
complementary proteins incomplete proteins that when combined provide all the amino acids essential for protein synthesis
complete proteins proteins that contain all the amino acids needed by the body for growth and maintenance
complex carbs starches, including cereal fruit and veggies
crucifers plants including broccoli cabbage and cauliflower that contain large amounts of fiber protein and indoles
daily value reference values developed by the FDA specifically for use on food labels
dietary fiber the nondigestible form of carbohydrates found in plant foods, such as leaves, stems, skins, seeds, and hulls
essential nutrients nutients that the body connot manufacture for itself and must obtain from food
folate various chemical forms of a watersoluble B vitamin that can be obtained from a diet high in veggies and citrus fruit
folic acid a form of folate used in vitamin supplements and fortified foods
functional fiber isolated nondigestible carbs with beneficial effects in humans
food toxicologists specialists who detect toxins in food and treat the conditions toxins produce
hemoglobin the oxygen transporting component of red blood cells: composed of heme and globin
incomplete protein proteins that lack one or more of the amino acids essential for protein synthesis
indoles naturally occuring chemicals found in foods such as winter squash, carrots and crucifers may help lower cancer risk
irradiation exposure to or treatment by some form of radiation
lacto vegetarians people who eat dairy products as well as fruits and veggies (no meat, poulty or fish)
listeria a bacterium commonly found in deli meats hot dogs and soft cheeses that can cause an infection called listeriosis
macronutrients nutrients required by the human body in the greatest amounts including h20 carbs protein and fats
minerals naturally occurring inorganic substances small amounts of some being essential in metabolism and nutrition
nutrition the science devoted to the study of dietary needs for food and the effects of food on organisms
organic term designating food produced with or production based on the use of fertilizer originating from plants or animals, without the use of pesticides of chemically formulated fertilizers
ovo-lacto-vegetarians people who eat eggs, dairy, and fruits and veggies
phytochemicals chemicals such as indoles, coumarins, and capsaicin, which exist naturally in plants and have disease fighting properties
proteins a substance that is basically a compound of amino acids: one of the essential nutrients
saturated fat a chemical term indicating that a fat molecule contains as many hydrogen atoms as its carbon skeleton can hold. normally solid at room temperature
simple carbs sugars like all carbs they provide the body with glucose
trans fat fats formed when liquid vegetable oils are processed to make table spreads or cooking fats and also found in dairy and beef products: considered to be especially dangerous dietary fats
vegans people who eat only plant foods
vitamins organic substances that are neded in very small amounts by the body and carry out a variety of functions in the metabolism and nutrition
anorexia nervosa a psychological disorder in which refusal to eat or an extreme loss of appetite leads to malnutrition, severe weight loss, and possibly death
appetite a desire for foood, stimulated by anticipated hunger, physiological changes within the brain and body, the availability of food and other environmental and psychological factors
basal metabolic rate (BMR) the number of cals required to sustain the body at rest
binge eating the rapid consumption of an abnormally large amount of food in a relatively short time
bulimia nervosa episodic binge eating, often followed by forced vomiting or laxative abuse, and accompanied by a persistent preoccupation with body shape and weight
eating disorders bizarre, often dangerouse patterns of food consumption, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa
hunger the physiological drive to consume food
obesity the excessive accumulation of fat in the body: a condition of having a BMI of thirty or above
overweight a condition of having a BMI between 25 and 29.9
satiety a feeling of fullness after eating