Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes- TEST

Question Answer
Asthenosphere plastic like layer of Earth where the lithospheric plates float & move
Cinder Cone Volcano steep-sided, lossely packed volcano formed when tephra falls to ground
Composite Volcano volcano built by alternating explosive and quiet eruptions that produce layers of tephra & lava
Continental Drift Wegner's hypothesis that all continents were once connected in a single large landmass the broke apart about 200 million years ago and drifted slowly to their current positions
Convection Current current in Earth's mantle that transfers heat in Earth's interior and is the driving force for plate tectonics
Crater steep-walled depression around a volcano's vent
Earthquake vibrations produced when rock breaks along a fault
Epicenter point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
Hot Spot result of an unusually hot area at the boundary between Earth's mantle and core that forms volcanoes when melted rock is forced upward and breaks through the crust
Lithosphere rigid layer of Earth about 100 km thick, made of the crust and a part of the upper mantle
Pangea large, ancient landmass that was composed of all the continents joined together
Plate a large section of Earth's oceanic crust and upper mantle are broken into plates that float and move around on a plasticlike layer of the mantle
Plate Tectonics theory that Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into plates that float and move around on a plasticlilke layer of the mantle
Primary Waves seismic waves that move rock particles back-and-forth in the same direction that the wave travles
Seafloor Spreading Hess's theory that new seafloor is formed when magma is forced upward toward the surface at a mid-ocean ridge
Secondary Waves seismic waves that move rock particles at right angles to the direction of the wave
Seismograph instrument used to register earthquake waves and record the time that each arrived
Sheild Volcano broad, gently sloping volcano formed by quiet eruptions of basaltic lava
Surface Waves seismic waves that move rock particles up-and-down in a backward rolling motion and side-to-side in a swaying motion
Tephra Bits of rock or solidified lava dropped from the air during an explosive volcanic eruption
Vent opening where magma is forced up and flows out onto Earth's surface as lava, forming a volcano
Volcano opening in Earth's surface that erupts sulfurous gases, ash, and lava