Emotions, Aggression, and Stress

Question Answer .
Emotion components •feelings
•the physiological responses
Emotion – definition A reaction to a stimulus (behavior) involving appraisal of the situation (cognition), bodily arousal (physiology), facial expression (communication), and feelings (subjective experience).
Emotion Classifications •Joy/Sadness
James-Lang Theory of Emotion Stimulus > Perception/interpretation > specific pattern of autonomic arousal > Particular emotion experienced

*specific emotion determined by autonomic arousal pattern

Canon-Bard Theory of Emotion Stimulus > perception interpretation > 1.general autonomic arousal 2. particular emotion experienced > simultaneous bodily response and emotional experience.

*central integration of emotional experiences and bodily processes.

Schater's Cognitive Theory Stimulus > perception/interpretation > 1. stimulus>general autonomic arousal 2. context>particular emotion experienced

*autonomic responses contribute to the intensity of emotion experienced
*emotion experience will affect future interpretations of stimuli and continuing autonomic arousal
Schaler and Singer Experiment A = Angry confederate, H = Happy confederate
Result: Not warned group reported emotion, emotion reported reflected confederates expressed emotion
Hemispheric Specialization •Left Hemisphere: Verbal processing, Positive emotion, Approach motivation

•Right Hemisphere: Spatial processing, Negative emotion, Withdrawal motivation

Emotion and Cognition:Hemispheric Specialization Research Result: People that scored higher on approach emotion trait scale did better on the verbal task after approach state induction. People that scored higher on withdrawal emotion trait scale did better on the spatial task after withdrawal state induction. •Left Hemisphere –Approach -Verbal
•Right Hemisphere –Withdrawal –Spatial
Paul Ekman’s Seven Basic Emotions Anger, Sadness, Happiness, Fear, Disgust, Surprise, Contempt
Paralinguistic Theory 1.Elicitors (expectations, situations, etc)
2. Facial Affect Program
3. Mediated by culture specific Display Rules
4. End Product
Facial Muscles and Branches of the Facial Nerves *Upper face (bilateral)
*Lower face(unilateral)
*Two cranial nerves:
-Facial (superficial)
-Trigeminal (jaw muscles)
Polygraph measures autonomic responses
-respiratory rate, sweating of fingertips, blood pressure/heart rate
Autonomic Responses •Multiple autonomic responses: Respiration, Blood pressure, Galvanic skin response
•Individual response: stereotypy–“fingerprint," Present at infancy, Stable over lifespan, Disease susceptibility
Hormones and Emotion •Corticosteroids(adrenal cortex)
•Epinephrine (adrenal medulla)
•Norepinephrine(locus coeruleus, reward)
•Dopamine (SN and VTA, reward)
•Androgens (aggression)
Symptoms of Removal of Neocortex •Decorticate rage
•not directed at particular targets
•poorly coordinated responses
Symptoms of Kluver-Bucy Syndrome •Lesions of anterior temporal lobes including the amygdala
–tameness, lack of fear
–may appear in Alzheimer’s
Reward locations Locus Coeruleus
Cerebellar Nuclei
Substantia Nigra
Ventral Tegmentum
Aggression •Affective aggression: for show
–Offensive aggression also known as social or instrumental aggression
-used to obtain something
–Defensive aggression
•Predatory aggression: actually a form of feeding behavior.
•Maternal Aggression -very violent and easily provoked in some species

*MH stimulation: Affective aggression
*LH stimulation: Predatory aggression

Neurotransmitters and Aggression SEROTONIN: correlates negatively with aggression.
(Monkeys with low serotonin will have violent, moody outbursts; the leader will only fight when necessary.)
*Serotoninis directly related to an organism’s happiness level (the lower the serotonin level, the less happy.)
*Serotonin receptor knockout mice are more anxious and aggressive than wild type mice.
Stress The Stress Response: Avoidance behavior, Increased vigilance and arousal, Activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS, Release of cortisol from the adrenal glands Stress and Mood
–Diathesis stress hypothesis of mood disorders. HPA axis is the site where genetic and environmentas disorders converge
Stress and Health * Social stress
* Stress affects the stomach
* Emotions and stress influence the immune system
* Bidirectionalcommunication
* Psychological stress and immunity
* Stress and emotions may influence cancer
* Emotions and stress influence cardiac dis
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