definition/ question term/ answer
The many overlapping food chains in an ecosystem make up a ___ food web
2. The interactions of living and nonliving things in the environment is ecosystem
__ obtain energy by breaking down wastes and recycling the remains of dead organisms. Decomposers
4. Most rain and snow comes from evaporation of ________ lakes, streams, oceans
5. The process of combining free nitrogen with other elements is called: __________ nitrogen cycle
6. A process that needs sunlight as a source of energy to make food is _________ photosynthesis
A collection of organisms and the nonliving factors that affect the ocean is called a(n) ecosystem
The groups of organisms most likely to contain chlorophyll are the ___ producers
The place where an organism lives that provides the things the organisms needs is called its ___ habitat
group of individuals of the same species that live in a certain area at a certain time. population
The study of how things interact with each other and with their environment is called__ Ecology
Which term refers to an environmental factor that prevents a population from increasing? limiting factors
Energy enters most ecosystems from sunlight
List 2 examples of producers grass, trees wheat
A food chain shows how energy moves through an ecosystem
Nitrogen compounds are returned to the soil through the action of decomposition
A waste product of respiration that producers take in during photosynthesis is carbon dioxide
The organisms that form the base of most open-ocean food webs are producers/ algae/ plankton
An organism's particular role in an ecosystem is it's niche
The behaviors and physical characteristics of species that allow them to live successfully in their environment are called _____ adaptations
Through the food chain, ______ is transferred from producers to consumers and decomposers. energy
Organisms that can make their own food are ____________________. producers
Consumers that eat both plants and animals are classified as ____________________. omnivores
Bacteria are ________ that obtain energy by breaking down wastes and the remains of dead organisms. decomposers
Some cycles in which matter and energy interact in an ecosystem are the water cycle, the carbon and oxygen cycles, and the _______________________. nitrogen cycle
things that are or were living biotic
things that never lived and/or aren't living abiotic
process that occurs in deep ocean waters, where sunlight doesn't penetrate in which bacteria make food from disolved sulfer compounds chemosynthesis
What is the greenhouse effect? a natural heating that occurs when certain gasses in earth's atmosphere trap heat
What health problems result from the greenhouse effect? cancer and lung problems
What causes the greenhouse effect? green house gasses trap sun radiation heat in atmosphere
What is ozone depletion? When ozone decreases from pollution
What health problems result from ozone depletion skin cancer, cateracts, and sunburn
What causes ozone depletion? CFC's
What is acid rain and what causes it? acid precipitation falling as rain, snow, sleet, or hail that is formed when pollutants are released into the atmosphere
How is groundwater polluted and what can be done to stop it? runoff from factories by the water and smoke that the factories put out
What is point source pollution? pollution that enters water from a specific location and can be controlled or treated before entering water
What is non-point source pollution? pollution that enters water from a large area and cannot be traced to a single location
What is a pollutant? anything that harms the environment
Thepositions of the constellations appear tochange throughout the yearbecause __ spin of the earth
About 90% of the stars in space are ___ stars main sequence
A main sequence star becomes a ____ afterit uses up the hydrogenin its core. red giant
Describe our sun. medium temperature, average, yellow, main sequence
A galaxy that has a shape similar to a football is a (n) __ galaxy elliptical
Describe the Milky Way Galaxy. barred spiral, 100,000 light years across and 15,000 light years high, 200 billion stars
A __________________ is a region so dense that nothing, including light, can escape its gravity field. black hole
A group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity is a _______________. galaxy
A sequence of star colors from hottest to coolest is ________________________________. blue/blue white, white, yellow, orange, red
_____ are patterns of stars in the sky. constilations
A measure of the amount of the light given off by a star is its ___________________________. absolute magnitude
A measure of the amount of light received on Earth is a star's _______ apparent magnitude
___ is the apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from two locations. parallax
A star begins as a _________________________, a large cloud of gas and dust. nebula
The Sun produces energy by forming ________________________ in its core. helium
Our Sun is considered average because its temperature and absolute magnitude place it in the __________________________________ range of the H-R diagram. main sequence star
The _________________________________ states that between 15 and 20 billion yrs ago, the universe began expanding out of an enormous explosion. big bang theory
A red shift in the spectrum of the light from an object indicates the object is moving ___________ you. away from
The range of electromagnetic waves placed in a certain order is called the _________ electromagnetic spectrum
Visible light can be separated into the various colors of the visible spectrum to form a (n) __________ rainbow/ spectrum
An instrument used to view different colors of light produced by each type of light bulb is called a (n) __ spectrascope
The life cycle of a star depends on its _________________________. mass
List the pieces of evidence for the Big Bang theory. (1) everything is redshifting, (2) cosmic background radiation, (3) quasars- oldest object in the universe
What is a light-year? Why do we use it to measure distances in space? distance light can travel in a year, we need it to measure large distances in space
1. A _______________ is part of the DNA code on a chromosome. gene
A _________________ is the combination of the organism’s genetic makeup and the environment’s effect on that makeup. phenotype
The study of ____________ is called genetics heredity
What do scientists today call the factors that control traits? genes
5. What are the different forms of genes called? _____ alleles
What does the notation TT mean to geneticists? __________________ dominant (homozygus)
What does the notation tt mean to geneticists? recessive (homozygus)
What does the notation Tt mean to geneticist? Dominant (heterozygus)
What does a punntett square show? probabliity of the outcome for offspring
What is an organism's physical appearance called? phenotype
What do we call the genetic makeup? genotype
The organism that has two identical alleles for a trait is: homozygus
A heterozygus organism has ___ alleles different
A homozygus organism has __ alleles same
A mutation is any change in a ___ or ___ gene or chromosome
When the last individual of a species dies, that species is considered __ extinct
Mendel developed the principle of independent ____________ to understand how traits are passed through the generations assortment
Define natural selection whichever animal survives the best with certain adaptations
What is an adaptation? something that helps an animal survive better in its environment
An organism can not survive and reproduce in its environment without adaptations
traits are an organism's physical characteristics
What are alleles? forms of a gene
A mutation is harmful to an organism if it hurts its chances of surviving
What is the major cause of extinction today? habitat destruction
Behavioral adaptation is: things that organisms do to survive
The youngest rocks are found where on the ocean floor? mid ocean ridge
2. Where do you find evidence of plate movement? ____ boundries
What evidence was found on different continents that helped prove continental drift _____ fossils, same climate
What is the idea called that said the continents have moved over time? ________ continental drift
At what boundaries do plates move apart? ___ divergant
At what boundaries do plates move towards each other? ___ convergant
At what boundaries do plates side past each other? ____ transform
Why did people not believe in continental drift? __ evidence wasn't enough to convince people
What is the name of the giant landmass before the continents drifted? _________ pangea
What causes seafloor spreading? ___ convection currents
How fast do many continents move in a year? __ 1-2 inches a year
What happens when two continents collide? Mountains
What forms when two ocean plates collide? island arcs, trenches
What forms when an ocean and a continental plate collide? trenches, volcanoes
Who thought of the idea for continental drift? Alfred Wegenr
What is the newer theory called the adds in convection current movement and ocean floor spreading? plate tectonics
How do sedimentary rocks form? sediments pressed and cemented together
How do igneous rocks form? hot magma cools and hardens
how do metamorphic rocks form? when heat, pressure, or fluids act on igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks.
What is a wave? rythmic disturbance that carries energy, not matter
What is a medium? line the wave travels through
What is the highest part of a wave? crest
What is the lowest part of a wave? trough
Define a transverse wave type of mechanical wave in which the wave causes matter in the medium to move up and down, back and forth, at right angles to the direction the wave travels
Define a longitudinal wave. exact same as transverse wave
What is the wavelength? distance from one crest to another crest, or one trough to another trough
Sound is a __ wave compressional
Sound waves do not travel through a vaccum
Describe electromagnetic waves. waves that don't need matter to carry energy
What is the speed of light? 3X (10 to the 9th power) meters per second
Color of the light wave is detemined by: frequency of the lightwave/ wavelength
Rarefaction: particles spread apart
What is a compression? compressing, going together
What is a reflection? When a wave strikes an object or surface and bounces off.
Define amplitude height of wave starting from medium
What is the frequency of a wave? how fast it goes, # of waves per second