plant terms

Question Answer
angiosperm a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary, which may mature into a fruit; flowering plants
anther the pollen producing tip of a stamen; part of a flower
blade any broad and flattened region of a plant or alga, which allows for increased photosynthetic surface area
charophyte any green algae of the class Charophyceae, comprising the stoneworts
chloroplast are specialized organelles found in all higher plant cells. These organelles contain the plant cell's chlorophyll, hence provide the green color.This is where photosynthesis takes place.
cuticle it is a protective waxy covering produced only by the epidermal cells of leaves.
endodermis literally "inner skin", this is a layer of cells which surrounds the central core of vascular tissue, and which helps to regulate the flow of water and dissolved substances
evaporation the process by which molecules in a liquid state- water- spontaneously become gaseous- water vapor-
evapotranspiration a term used to describe the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the earth's land surface to atmosphere
fiber elongated and thickened cell found in xylem tissue. it strengthens and supports the surrounding cells
hold fast anchoring base of an alga
hypha threadlike filaments that form the mycelium (body) of a fungus; hyphaep
leaf an organ found in most vascular plants; it consists of a flat lamina (blade) and a petiole (stalk) many flowering plants have additionally a pair of small stipules near the base of the petiole
ovary in flowering plants, the part fo the flower which encloses the ovules. when the ovary matures, it becomes the fruit
ovule in seed plants, the structure which gives rise to the seed
parenchyma a generalized cell or tissue in a plant. these cells may manufacture or store food, and can often divide or differentiate into other kinds of cells
petal one of the outer appendages fo a flower, located between the outer sepals and the stamens. petals often display brights colors that serve to attract pollinators
phloem nutrient- conducting tissue of vascular plants
pistil central set of organs in a flower; it is composed of one or more carpels
pith to severly damage the brain of a frog, also any central region of parenchyma tissue within a plant stem
plasmodesmata cytoplasmic connections between neighboring cells in plant tissues
pollen the microspore of seed plants
pollination process of transferring the pollen from its place of production to the place where the egg cell is produced. this may be accomplished by the use of wind, water, insects, birds, bats, or other means. pollination is usually followed by fertilization
rhizoid A cellular outgrowth of a plant that usually aids in anchoring to the surface and increasing surface area to acquire water or nutrients; found in mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
rhizome A horizontal underground stem, such as found in many ferns, where only the leaves may stick up into the air; sphenophytes (horsetails and their relatives) spread via rhizomes, but also produce erect stems.
root Usually the below ground portion of a plant. Contrast with shoot.
sepal The outermost structures of a flower.
shoot The outermost structures of a flower.
stamen part of a flower, the tip of which produces pollen and is called the anther
stigma The sticky tip of a pistil. Or, the dense region of pigments found in many photosynthetic protists which is sensitive to light, and thus functions somewhat like a miniature eye.
stipe A scientific term for "stalk".
stipules Paired appendages found at the base of the leaves of many flowering plants.
stomata Openings in the epidermis of a stem or leaf of a plant which permit gas exchange with the air. In general, all plants except liverworts have stomata in their sporophyte stage.
style The narrow stalk of the pistil, located above the ovary but below the stigma.
tree Any tall plant, including many conifers and flowering plants, as well as extinct lycophytes and sphenophytes.
tuber An underground stem which has been modified for storage of nutrients, such as a potato.
turgor pressure Force exerted outward on a cell wall by the water contained in the cell. This force gives the plant rigidity, and may help to keep it erect.
vegetative growth Growth of a plant by division of cells, without sexual reproduction.
wood A secondary tissue found in seed plants which consists largely of xylem tissue.
xylem Water-conducting tissue of vascular plants.
flower Collection of reproductive structures found in flowering plants.
fruit In flowering plants, the structure which encloses the seeds. True fruits develop from the ovary wall, such as bananas and tomatoes, though not all fruits are edible, such as the dry pods of milkweed or the winged fruits of the maple.
guard cells Pair of cells which surround a stomate and regulate its size by altering their shape.
gymnosperm A plant that produces seeds, which are not enclosed; includes any seed plant that does not produce flowers.