Question Answer
What are the 6 most abundant elements in microbes? carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, and sulfar
What are the 6 most abundant types of molecules in a living bacterium? water, proteins, RNA, carbohydrates, lipids, and DNA
What is the most abundant component of living bacteria? water
Autotrophs bacteria that can use carbon dioxide from the air as their carbon source
Heterotrophs bacteria that require their carbon source in an organic form–sugar or amino acid
Fastidious organisms bacteria that do not produce their own vitamins, usually because they can acquire them from the host
Auxotrophs mutant bacteria that are incapable of synthesizing an organic molecule, such as a vitamin
Photoautotrophs bacteria that derive energy from light
Halophiles bacteria that have adapted to growth in high-salt conditions
Methanogens bacteria that derive energy from carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce methane gas
Chemoautotrophs bacteria that derive energy from rocks or minerals rather than sunlight or organic materials
How are culture media produced? agar is added to culture broth–mix is boiled to melt agar–mix poured into petri dishes where it solidifies as it cools to room temp
Distinguish defined dedia from complex media defined media–complete chemical sat_flash_1s are known–made of known chemicals–complex media–contains some component from biological source–animal/plant–some constituent chemicals not known
Define selective media allow some organisms to grow while inhibiting others
Define differential media allow several kinds of organisms to grow–organisms appear differently–organisms might appear as different colors
How are pure bacterial cultures obtained? streaking sample of bacteria onto pertri dish–individual bacteria fall in well-isolated positions–grown into colonies–individual colonies recovered as pure cultures
Name & define the technique used to work with microbial cultures aseptic technique–handling samples so they don't become contaminated from the outside
How does diffusion assist a cell nutritionally? Brownian motion–nutrient molecules constantly moving–make contact with bacterium–pass through outer layers–diffuse to bacterias cytoplasmic membrane–cell can transport them inside
What prevents a bacterial cell from rupturing due to internal osmotic or hydrostatic pressure? strength of peptidoglycan layer prevents bacterial cell from rupturing due to internal osmotic/hydrostatic pressure
Aerobes bacteria that grow in the pressence of oxygen
Facultative anaerobes bacteria that grow with/without oxygen
Microaerophiles bacteria that require reduced levels of oxygen
Anaerobes bacteria that fail to grow in the presence of oxygen
Acidophiles bacteria that grow in acidic environments
Alkalophiles bacteria that grow in alkaline environments
Obligate halophiles bacteria that can't grow without salt
Psychrophiles bacteria that thrive in cold temperatures
Mesophiles bacteria that thrive in warm temperatures
Thermophiles bacteria that thrive in hot temperatures
Thermoduric bacteria bacteria that can't grow in high temps–also not killed by high temps
Symbiosis a relationship in which different organisms grow with one another
Synergism relationship which total growth of 2 or more organisms is more than if they had grown independently
Commensalism relationship in which one organism helps another but is unaffected itself
Antagonism harmful relationship between two organisms
Normal flora native microbes that an individual harbors without causing disease