Natural Immunity

Question Answer
Acquired immunity immune functions learned–develop because of specific stimulus such as infecting microbe–induction of immune response that is remembered–provides long-term immunity
Alternative pathway starts with C3–binding directly to certain microbial polysaccharides–important in preventing infections before antibody production can occur–compliment proteins are always present in the blood
Basophils nonphagocytic cells of natural immunity–enhance inflammatory responses by release of histamine and related chemicals–inflammation allows phagocytic cells to gain entry and increase temp to improve efficiency
Chemotactic factors pieces of C3 & C5, C3a & C5a cleaved free of bacteria to recruit (attract) phagocytic cells to the site of infection
Ciliated epithelial cells sweep the mucous layer toward bodily orifices (openings)
Classical pathway complement system–first component, C1, binds to bacterial-bound antibodies–activated and causes binding and activation of other components–C4, C2, C3, C5–in that order
Complement special set of proteins, circulates throughout body and binds to bacteria
Complement cascade proteins act in a sequential order
Cytokines small chemicals secreted by one cell as a form of communication or signaling to other cells
Diapedesis phagocytes' process of exiting blood stream and squeezing between vascular endothelial cells
Eosinophils momphagocytic cells of natural immunity–release toxins–important in overcoming infection by worms and other parasites that are too large for phagocytic cell to ingest
Granules contain histamin and various toxic chemicals
Immunity human's system of defenses to fight off infection
Interferons small proteins released by infected microphages, fibroblasts, T cells alert neighboring cells–neghboring cells develop antiviral state–defent themselves by degrading viral proteins and inhibiting viral transcription
Iron-binding proteins sequester iron to prevent adequate nutritional availability for microbes
Leukocytes white blood cells
Macrophages (monocytes when in blood) comprise about 8% of leukocytes and are present in many tissues (alveolar macrophages–lung, Kupffer–liver, dendritic–skin)
Mast cells found in tissues, appear to have identical functions to basophils
Membrane attack complex C3b and C5b (b for binding–stays bound to the microbe)–focal point for complement components C6-C7-C8-C9 to bind as complex–forms a pore through bacterial membrane–leakage, lysis, and death of microbe result
Natural immunity nonspecific resistance factors–includes things that are innate, already present in body
Neutrophils cells that their nuclei stain with neutral dye–nuclei are multilobed–several smaller, connected lobes of nucleus apparently help use diapedesis to squeeze through vascular walls to sites of infection in tissues
Opsonin (C3b) means to prepare to eat–structure includes specific receptor for phagocytic PMNs–bind and ingest opsonized particles–binding site not exposed until C3a is cleaved and removed
Phagosome membrane bag inside the phagocytic cell
PMNs (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) bind and subsequently ingest the opsonized particles
Reticuloendothelial system whole system used before phagocytic cells were characterized